The Fang Research Group

(52)   Lee, J.; Kalin, A. J.; Wang, C.; Early, J. T.; Fang, L.* Donor–acceptor conjugated ladder polymer via aromatization-driven thermodynamic annulation, Polym. Chem. 2018. DOI: 10.1039/C7PY02059G

(51)   Guo, Z.-H.; Wang, C.; Zhang, Q.; Che, S.; Zhou, H.-C.; Fang, L.* Cost-effective synthesis and solution processing of porous polymer networks through methanesulfonic acid-mediated aldol triple condensation, Mater. Chem. Front. 2018. DOI: 10.1039/C7QM00485K

(50)   Yuan, T.; Xu, Y.; Zhu, C.; Jiang, Z.; Sue, H.-J.; Fang, L.*; Olson, M. A.* Tunable Thermochromism of Multifunctional Charge Transfer-Based Supramolecular Materials Assembled in Water, Chem. Mater. 2017, 29, 9937-9945. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b03273

  •           - Featured on the front cover of Issue 23, 2017


(49)   Lee, J.; Li, H.; Kalin, A. J.; Yuan, T.; Wang, C.; Olson, T.; Li, H.; Fang, L.* Extended Ladder-Type Benzo[k]tetraphene-Derived Oligomers, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2017, 56, 13727-13731. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201707595

  •           - Highlighted by X-mol: link.

(48)   Hollingsworth, W. R.; Lee, J.; Fang, L.; Ayzner, A. L.* Exciton Relaxation in Highly Rigid Conjugated Polymers: Correlating Radiative Dynamics with Structural Heterogeneity and Wavefunction Delocalization, ACS Energy Lett., 2017, 2, 2096–2102. DOI: 10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00535

(47)   Zhu, C.; Fang, L.* Locking the Coplanar Conformation of π-Conjugated Molecules and Macromolecules Using Dynamic Noncovalent Bonds, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 2017. DOI:

(46)   Li, F.; Zou, Y.; Fang, L.*; Lutkenhaus, J. L.* Scalable Synthesis and Multi-Electron Transfer of Aniline/Fluorene Copolymer for Solution-Processable Battery Cathodes, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 2017, 38, 1700067. DOI: 10.1002/marc.201700067.

  •           - In special issue of Synthetic Metals

(45)   Lee, J.; Kalin, A. J.; Yuan. T.; Al-Hashimi, M.; Fang, L.* Fully Conjugated Ladder Polymers, Chem. Sci., 2017, 8, 2503-2521. DOI: 10.1039/C7SC00154A

  •           - Invited Perspective
  •           - Highlighted on the front cover of Issue 4, 2017
  •           - Highlighted by theRoyal Society of Chemistry China


(44)   Patra, D.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Sredojevic, D. N.; White, A. J. P.; Bazzi, H. S.; Brothers, E. N.; Heeney, M.; Fang, L.; Yoon, M.-H.; Al-Hashimi, M.* Synthesis of Low Band Gap Polymers Based on Bisthiazole and Thienylenevinylene for Organic Thin-Film Transistors, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2017, 5, 2247-2258. DOI: 10.1039/C6TC04763G

(43)   Choi, Y.H.; Cho, J.; Lunsford, A. M.; Al-Hashimi, M.; Fang, L.; Banerjee, S.* Mapping the Electrocatalytic Activity of MoS2 Across Its Amorphous to Crystalline Transition, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, 5, 5129-5141. DOI: 10.1039/c6ta10316

(42)   Zou, Y.; Ji, X.; Cai, J.; Yuan, T.; Stanton, D. J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Narahghi, M.; Fang, L.* Synthesis and Solution Processing of a Hydrogen-Bonded Ladder Polymer, Chem, 2017, 2, 139-152. DOI: 10.1016/j.chempr.2016.12.008

  •           - See "Potential Energy" essay highlighting first author Dr. Yang Zou: link.
  •           - Highlighted by Texas A&M College of Science News: link.

(41)   Zhu, C.; Mu, A. U.; Lin, Y.-H.; Guo, Z.-H.; Yuan, T.; Wheeler, S. E.; Fang, L.* Molecular Coplanarity and Self-Assembly Promoted by Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds, Org. Lett., 2016, 18, 6332-6335. DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.6b03225

(40)   Yuan, T.; Vazquez, M.; Goldner, A. N.; Xu, Y.; Contrucci, R.; Firestone, M. A.; Olson, M. A.*; Fang, L.* Versatile Thermochromic Supramolecular Materials Based on Competing Charge Transfer Interactions, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2016, 26, 8604-8612. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201603364M

  •           - Featured in Advanced Science News: link.
  •           - Highlighted on the Inside Front Cover of Volume 26, Issue 47, 2016: link


(39)   Choi, Y.-H.; Lee, J.; Parija, A.; Cho, J.; Verkhoturov, S.; Al-Hashimi, M.; Fang, L.*; Banerjee, S.* An in Situ Sulfidation Approach for the Integration of MoS2 Nanosheets on Carbon Fiber Paper and the Modulation of Its Electrocatalytic Activity by Interfacing with nC60, ACS Catal., 2016, 6, 6246-6254. DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.6b01942

(38)    Zhu, C.; Guo, Z.-H.; Mu, A. U.; Liu, Y.; Wheeler, S. E.; Fang, L.* Low Band Gap Coplanar Conjugated Molecules Featuring Dynamic Intramolecular Lewis Acid–Base Coordination, J. Org. Chem., 2016, 81, 4347-4352. DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.6b00238

(37)    Guo, Z.-H.; Ai, N.; McBroom, C.; Yuan, T.; Lin, Y.-H.; Roders, M.; Zhu, C.; Ayzner, A. L.; Pei, J.*; Fang, L.* Side-Chain Engineering Approach to Solvent-Resistant Semiconducting Polymer Thin Films, Polym. Chem., 2016, 7, 648-665. DOI: 10.1039/C5PY01669J

(36)    Lee, J.; Rajeeva, B. B.; Yuan, T.; Guo, Z.-H.; Lin, Y.-H.; Al-Hashimi, M.; Zheng, Y.; Fang, L.* Thermodynamic synthesis of solution processable ladder polymers, Chem. Sci., 2016, 7, 881-889. DOI: 10.1039/C5SC02385H

  •           - Featured as one of the "Hot Chemical Science Articles for December 2015"
  •           - Highlighted on the front cover of Issue 2, 2016: link.


(35)    Zou, Y.; Yuan, T.; Yao, H.; Frazier, D. J.; Stanton, D. J.; Sue, H.-J.; Fang, L.* Solution-Processable Core-Extended Quinacridone Derivatives with Intact Hydrogen Bonds, Org. Lett., 2015, 17, 3146-3149. DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.5b01465

(34)    Gu, W.-X.; Li, Q-L.; Lu, H.; Fang, L.; Chen, Q.; Yang, Y.-W.; Gao, H. Construction of Stable Polymeric Vesicles Based on Azobenzene and Beta-Cyclodextrin Grafted Poly(Glycerol Methacrylate)s for Potential Applications in Colon-Specific Drug Delivery, Chem. Commun. 2015, 51, 4715−4718. DOI: 10.1039/C5CC00628G

(33)   Zhu, C. Z.; Fang, L.* Mingling Electronic Chemical Sensors with Supramolecular Host-Guest Chemistry, Curr. Org. Chem., 2014, 18, 1957−1964. Invited Review.





Prior to Texas A&M


(32)    Choe, J.; Lee. Y.; Fang, L.; Lee, G.-D.; Bao. Z.; Kim, K.Direct Imaging of Rotating Molecules Anchored on Graphene, Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 13174-13180.

(31)    Feldblyum, J.; McCreery, C.; Andrew S.; Kurosawa, T.; Santos, E.; Duong, V.; Fang, L.; Ayzner, A.; Bao, Z.; Few-Layer, Large-Area, 2D Covalent Organic Framework Semiconductor Thin Films, Chem. Commun. 2015, 13894-13897.

(30)    Giri, G.; DeLongchamp, D.; Reinspach, J.; Fischer, D.; Richter, L.; Xu, J.; Benight, S.; Ayzner, A.; He, M.-Q.; Fang, L.; Xue, G.; Toney, M.; Bao, Z., Effect of Solution Shearing Method on Packing and Disorder of Organic Semiconductor Polymers, Chem. Mater. 2015, 27, 2350−2359.

(29)   Y. Zhou, T. Kurosawa, W. Ma, Y. Guo, L. Fang, K. Vandewal, Y. Diao, C. Wang, Q. Yan, J. Reinspach, J. Mei, A. L. Appleton, G.I. Koleilat, Y. Gao, S.C. Mannsfeld, A. Salleo, H. Ade, D. Zhao, Z. Bao, High Performance All-Polymer Solar Cell via Polymer Side-Chain Engineering, Adv. Mater., 2014, 26, 3767−3722


(28)    Fang, L.†; Zhou, Y.†; Yao, Y.-X.; Diao, Y.; Appleton, A. L.; Lee, W.-Y.; Allen, R.; Reinspach, J.; Bao, Z.Conjugated Random Copolymers with Polystyrene Side-Chains for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells, Chem. Mater, 2013, 25(24), 4874−4880.


(27)    Fang, L.; Liu, P.; Sveinbjornsson, B. R.; Atahan-Evrenk, S.; Vandewal, K.; Osuna, S.; Jiménez-Osés, G.; Shrestha, S.; Giri, G.; Wei, P.; Salleo, A.; Aspuru-Guzik, A.; Grubbs, R. H.; Houk, K. N.; Bao, Z. Confined Organization of Fullerene Units along High Polymer Chains, J. Mater. Chem. C. 2013, 1, 5747−5755.


(26)    Mei, J.; Diao, Y.; Appleton, A. L.; Fang, L.; Bao, Z. Integrated Materials Design of Organic Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 6724−6746.


(25)    Wang, H.; Mei, J., Liu, P; Schmidt, K.; Jiménez-Osés, G.; Osuna, S.; Fang, L.; Tassone, C. J.; Zoombelt, A. P.; Sokolov, A. N.; Houk, K. N.; Toney, M. F.; Bao, Z. Scalable and Selective Dispersion of Semiconducting Arc-Discharged Carbon Nanotubes by Dithiafulvalene/Thiophene Copolymers for Thin Film Transistors, ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 2659−2668.


(24)    Wang, C.; Cao, D.; Fahrenbach, A. C.; Fang, L.; Olson, M. A.; Friedman, D. C.; Basu, S.; Dey, S. K.; Botros, Y. Y.; Stoddart, J. F. Solvent-Dependent Ground-State Distributions in a Donor–Acceptor Redox-Active Bistable [2] Catenane, J. Phys. Org. Chem. 2012, 25, 544−552.


(23)    Fang, L.; Wang, C.; Fahrenbach, A. C.; Trabolsi, A.; Botros, Y. Y.; Stoddart, J. F. Dual Stimulus Switching of a [2]Catenane in Water, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 1805−1809.


(22)    Fang, L.; Basu, S.; Sue, C.-H.; Fahrenbach, A. C.; Stoddart, J. F. Syntheses and Dynamics of Donor-Acceptor [2]Catenanes in Water, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 396−399.


(21)    Zhang, W.; DeIonno, E.; Dichtel, W. R.; Fang, L.; Trabolsi, A.; Olsen, J.-C.; Benítez, D.; Heath, J. R.; Stoddart, J. F. A Solid-State Switch Containing An Electrochemically Switchable Bistable Poly[n]rotaxane, J. Mater. Chem. 2011, 21, 1487−1495.


(20)    Fahrenbach, A. C.; Barnes, J. C.; Li, H.; Benítez, D.; Basuray, A. N.; Fang, L.; Sue, C.-H.; Barin, G.; Dey, S. K.; Goddard, W. A., III; Stoddart, J. F. Measurement of the Ground-State Distributions in Bistable Mechanically Interlocked Molecules Using Slow Scan Rate Cyclic Voltammetry, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2011, 108, 20416−20421.


(19)    Fang, L.; Olson, M. A.; Benítez, D.; Tkatchouk, E.; Goddard, W. A., III; Stoddart, J. F. Mechanically Bonded Macromolecules, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2010, 39, 17−29.


(18)    Hmadeh, M.; Fang, L.; Trabolsi, A.; Elhabiri, M.; Albrecht-Gary, A.-M.; Stoddart, J. F. On the Thermodynamic and Kinetic Investigations of a [c2]Daisy Chain Polymer, J. Mater. Chem. 2010, 20, 3422−3430.


(17)    Wang, C.; Olson, M. A.; Fang, L.; Benítez, D.; Tkatchouk, E.; Basu, S.; Basuray, A. N.; Zhang, D.; Zhu, D.; Goddard, W. A.; Stoddart, J. F. Isolation by Crystallization of Translational Isomers of a Bistable Donor-Acceptor [2]catenane, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 13991−13996.


(16)    Olson, M. A.; Coskun, A.; Fang, L.; Basuray, A. N.; Stoddart, J. F. Polycatenation under Thermodynamic Control, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 3151−3156.


(15)    Li, Q.; Sue, C.-H.; Basu, S.; Shveyd, A. K.; Zhang, W.; Barin, G.; Fang, L.; Sarjeant, A. A.; Stoddart, J. F.; Yaghi, O. M. A Catenated Strut in a Catenated Metal-Organic Framework, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 6751−6755.


(14)    Coskun, A.; Wesson, P. J.; Klajn, R.; Trabolsi, A.; Fang, L.; Olson, M. A.; Dey, S. K.; Grzybowski, B. A.; Stoddart, J. F. Molecular-Mechanical Switching at the Nanoparticle-Solvent Interface: Practice and Theory, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 4310−4320.


(13)    Fang, L.; Hmadeh, M.; Wu, J.; Olson, M. A.; Spruell, J. M.; Trabolsi, A.; Yang, Y.-W.; Elhabiri, M.; Albrecht-Gary, A.-M.; Stoddart, J. F. Acid-Base Actuation of [c2]Daisy Chains, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 7126−7134.


(12)    Klajn, R.; Fang, L.; Coskun, A.; Olson, M. A.; Wesson, P. J.; Stoddart, J. F.; Grzybowski, B. A. Metal Nanoparticles Functionalized with Molecular and Supramolecular Switches, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 4233−4235.


(11)    Zheng, Y. B.; Yang, Y.-W.; Jensen, L.; Fang, L.; Juluri, B. K.; Flood, A. H.; Weiss, P. S.; Stoddart, J. F.; Huang, T. J. Active Molecular Plasmonics: Controlling Plasmon Resonances with Molecular Switches, Nano Lett. 2009, 9, 819−825.


(10)    Olson, M. A.; Coskun, A.; Klajn, R.; Fang, L.; Dey, S. K.; Browne, K. P.; Grzybowski, B. A.; Stoddart, J. F. Assembly of Polygonal Nanoparticle Clusters Directed by Reversible Noncovalent Bonding Interactions, Nano Lett. 2009, 9, 3185−3190.


(9)       Olson, M. A.; Braunschweig, A. B.; Ikeda, T.; Fang, L.; Trabolsi, A.; Slawin, A. M. Z.; Khan, S. I.; Stoddart, J. F. Thermodynamic Forecasting of Mechanically Interlocked Switches, Org. Biomol. Chem. 2009, 7, 4391−4405.


(8)       Olson, M. A.; Braunschweig, A. B.; Fang, L.; Ikeda, T.; Klajn, R.; Trabolsi, A.; Wesson, P. J.; Benítez, D.; Mirkin, C. A.; Grzybowski, B. A.; Stoddart, J. F. A Bistable Poly[2]catenane Forms Nanosuperstructures, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2009, 48, 1792−1797.


(7)       Klajn, R.; Olson, M. A.; Wesson, P. J.; Fang, L.; Coskun, A.; Trabolsi, A.; Soh, S.; Stoddart, J. F.; Grzybowski, B. A. Dynamic Hook-and-Eye Nanoparticle Sponges, Nature Chem. 2009, 1, 733−738.


(6)       Juluri, B. K.; Kumar, A. S.; Liu, Y.; Ye, T.; Yang, Y.-W.; Flood, A. H.; Fang, L.; Stoddart, J. F.; Weiss, P. S.; Huang, T. J. A Mechanical Actuator Driven Electrochemically by Artificial Molecular Muscles, Acs Nano, 2009, 3, 291−300.


(5)       Wu, J.; Leung, K. C.-F.; Benítez, D.; Han, J.-Y.; Cantrill, S. J.; Fang, L.; Stoddart, J. F. An Acid-Base-Controllable [c2]Daisy Chain, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 7470−7474.


(4)       Fang, L.; Chan, W. H.; He, Y. B.; Kwong, D. W. J.; Lee, A. W. M. Fluorescent Anion Sensor Derived from Cholic Acid: the Use of Flexible Side Chain, J. Org. Chem. 2005, 70, 7640−7646.


(3)       Liu, S. Y.; Fang, L.; He, Y. B.; Chan, W. H.; Yeung, K. T.; Cheng, Y. K.; Yang, R. H. Cholic-Acid-Based Fluorescent Sensor for Dicarboxylates and Acidic Amino Acids in Aqueous Solutions, Org. Lett. 2005, 7, 5825−5828.


(2)       Fang, L.; Chan, W. H.; He, Y. B. Selective Complexation of Metals with Isoxazolidine-Containing Fluorophores, Tetrahedron Lett. 2005, 46, 173−176.


(1)       Zeng, Z. Y.; Wu, J. J.; Wei, L. H.; Fang, L.; Huang, Y. Y.; Meng, L. Z.; He, Y. B. Studies on Synthesis and Anion Recognition of A Novel Amide Receptor Bearing Two Anthracene Substituents, Chem. J. Chin. Univ. 2003, 24, 2005−2009.


Book Chapter


(1)       Zhou, Y.; Lee, J.; Fang, L.* n-Type Electron-Accepting Materials for Organic Solar Cells. In Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells, Huang, H.; Huang, J., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Switzerland 2014.