|Atomic Structure : Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals|
- Metallic luster (shine)
- Generally solids at room temperature
- Conduct heat and electricity
- Exist as extended planes of atoms
- Combine with other metals to form alloys which have metallic characteristics
- Form positive ions, e.g. Na+, Mg2+, and Al3+
- Rarely have metallic luster (shine)
- Generally gases at room temperature
- Neither malleable nor ductile
- Poor conductors of heat and electricity
- Usually exist as molecules in thier elemental form
- Combine with other nonmetals to form covalent
- Generally form negative ions, e.g. Cl-, SO42-, and N3-
The differences in the characteristics of metals and nonmetals can be explained by the following:
- Metals have relatively few electrons in their valence shells.
- Metals have lower ionization energies than nonmetals.
- Metals have smaller electron affinities than nonmetals.
- Metals have larger atoms than nonmetals.
1) As you move across a period, metallic character decreases and nonmetallic character increases.
2) As you move down a group, metallic character increases and nonmetallic character decreases.
- A class of 8 elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals.
Generally look metallic but are brittle (not malleable or ductile)
Neither good conductors or insulators; instead they are semiconductors.